• Innovative financing for health: what is truly innovative? Atun R et al. The Lancet, Volume 380, Issue 9858, Pages 2044 - 2049, 8 December 2012
• Making new vaccines affordable: a comparison of financing processes used to develop and deploy new meningococcal and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Hargreaves JR et al. The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 9 June 2011
• Innovative Financing for Global Health R&D. Financial Innovations Lab Report. Milken Institute. November 2012.
• Engaging the Debates: An Update on Innovative Financing Mechanisms for Global Health. IAVI Policy Brief. September 2010.
• A global fund for the health MDGs? Giorgio Cometto,, Gorik Ooms, Ann Starrs, Paul Zeitz. Lancet 2009: 373: 1500-1502 (May 2, 2009)
• Improving Health R&D Financing For Developing Countries: A Menu Of Innovative Policy Options. Robert Hecht, Paul Wilson and Amrita Palriwala. Health Affairs, 28, no. 4 (2009): 974-985. July 2009
• Innovative Financing for Global Health: Tools for Analyzing the Options. Brookings Institute: Global Health Financing Initiative. Working Paper 2. August 2008.
• Financing Mechanisms for Malaria All-Party Parliamentary Group on Malaria and Neglected Tropical Diseases. March 2007
• Pooled Funds to Fight Neglected Diseases: Assessing New Models to Finance Global Health R&D. Center for Global Health R&D Policy Assessment. May 2011
• The PDP+ Fund: Accelerating creation of new products for diseases of poverty. PDP+Fund.Final.pdf May 2010. IAVI, Novartis, The George Institute
• International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA) proposal for an “Initiative for sustainable funding for R&D for neglected diseases”. http://www.ifpma.org/pdf/2007_11_08_Soren_Peter_Andreasen.pdf
• R&D Tax Credits: A Tool to Advance Global Health Technologies? Rao A. Center for Global Helath R&D Policy Assessment. Final Report. September 2011.
Pay for Performance
• Incentives for Global Health: Toward Pay-for-Performance: Reimbursement of Innovative New Drugs. Gilbert’s LLP. August 2012.
• Performance-based financing at the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: an analysis of grant ratings and funding, 2003–12. Fan YY et al. The Lancet Global Health, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages e161 - e168, September 2013
• The Health Impact Fund: incentives for improving access to medicines. A Banerjee et al. The Lancet. 375(9709) January 9 2010.
• The Health Impact Fund: Making New Medicines Accessible to All. A Hollis & T Pogge. Incentives for Global Health. August 2008.
• Prizes for Global Health Technologies. Center for Global Health R&D Policy Assessment. March 2011.
• Knowledge Ecology International (KEI propose that researchers and drug developers should be rewarded by a ‘prize’ related to the public health utility of their invention as opposed to being rewarded through sales exclusivity protected by the patent system. The greater the usefulness of a product in tackling a particular health challenge, the larger the reward would be. www.keionline.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=4&Itemid=1
• Médécins sans Frontières (MSF) proposed a prize fund to stimulate development of a low-cost point-of-care rapid diagnostic test for TB. Discussion of this idea, and other financing approaches took place at an MSF meeting in April 2008. www.accessmed-msf.org/fileadmin/user_upload/diseases/tuberculosis/2008%2004%2011%20Tuberculosis%20R%26D%20and%20alternative%20financing%20mechanisms%20-%20MSF%20meeting.pdf
Advanced Market Commitment
• The Advance Market Commitment for Pneumococcal Vaccines: Process and design evaluation. Evaluation commissioned by GAVI. Dalberg Global Development Advisors. 2013.
• Advance Market Commitments to Stimulate Industry Investment in Global Health Product Development A Report on the Biotech Industry’s Perspective. BVGH. February 2006
• An Advance Market Commitment for AIDS Vaccines: Accelerating the Response From Industry. May 2006. IAVI Policy Research Working Paper 7
• Making Markets for Vaccines: Ideas to Action. M. Kremer et al. Center for Global Development. 2005
Affordable Medicines Facility/ Global Drug Facility
• Preliminary Report of the Independent Evaluation of AMFm Phase 1. Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. July 2012
• Effect of the Affordable Medicines Facility—malaria (AMFm) on the availability, price, and market share of quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapies in seven countries: a before-and-after analysis of outlet survey data. Tougher S et al. The Lancet, Volume 380, Issue 9857, Pages 1916 - 1926, 1 December 2012
• The Global Drug Facility and its role in the market for tuberculosis drugs. Arinaminpathy N et al. The Lancet, Volume 382, Issue 9901, Pages 1373 - 1379, 19 October 2013
Other - mobilizing funding from non-traditional sources
• Government Backed Bonds:The International Finance Facility for Immunization (IFFIm) works by investing the majority of resources up front- “frontloading” through issuing bonds against secure donor commitments, to ensure increased and more reliable and predictable funding flows. The first bonds were released in November 2006, raising US$ 1 billion. www.iff-immunisation.org/index.html
• Currency Transaction Development Levy (CTDL). See:
• Innovative Vaccine Investment ISA: Vaccine Investment ISA press release
• Tax Justice Network proposals on capital flight and tax avoidance/evasion: http://www.innovativefinance-oslo.no/pop.cfm?FuseAction=Doc&pAction=View&pDocumentId=11607
Patent related Mechanisms/ Legislative measures
• Patent Pools: Assessing Their Value-Added for Global Health Innovation and Access, Center for Global Health R&D. April 2012.
• In July 2008 UNITAID's Executive Board approved the principle of establishing a patent pool initially focused on paediatric antiretrovirals (ARVs) and new anti-HIV combinations: www.unitaid.eu/en/NEWS/UNITAID-moves-towards-a-patent-pool-for-medicines.html
• The Open Access Malaria Box: A Drug Discovery Catalyst for Neglected Diseases. Spangenberg T et al. PLoS ONE 8(6): e62906. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062906
• Open Source for Neglected Diseases: Magic Bullet or Mirage? Center for Global Health R&D Policy Assessment. April 2011
• Open access consortium. Strauss S. Nature Biotechnology 29, 298 (2011) doi:10.1038/nbt0411-298b
Priority Review Vouchers
• Introduction of European priority review vouchers to encourage development of new medicines for neglected diseases. Ridley DB & Sanches AC. The Lancet, Volume 376, Issue 9744, Pages 922 - 927, 11 September 2010
• other useful websites: http://prvinfo.org/
• Coartem earns first Priority Review Voucher issued under the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007. For additional information, see:
Draft Guidance for Industry: Tropical Disease Priority Review Vouchers
FDA Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee
Orphan drug legislation