Articles on Inovative Financing Mechanisms

General articles

     •     Innovative financing for health: what is truly innovative? Atun R et al. The Lancet, Volume 380, Issue 9858, Pages 2044 - 2049, 8 December 2012

     •     Making new vaccines affordable: a comparison of financing processes used to develop and deploy new meningococcal and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Hargreaves JR et al. The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 9 June 2011

     •     Innovative Financing for Global Health R&D. Financial Innovations Lab Report. Milken Institute. November 2012.

     •     Engaging the Debates: An Update on Innovative Financing Mechanisms for Global Health.  IAVI Policy Brief. September 2010.

     •     A global fund for the health MDGs? Giorgio Cometto,, Gorik Ooms, Ann Starrs, Paul Zeitz.  Lancet 2009: 373: 1500-1502 (May 2, 2009)

     •     Improving Health R&D Financing For Developing Countries: A Menu Of Innovative Policy Options.  Robert Hecht, Paul Wilson and Amrita Palriwala. Health Affairs, 28, no. 4 (2009): 974-985. July 2009

     •     Innovative Financing for Global Health: Tools for Analyzing the Options.  Brookings Institute: Global Health Financing Initiative.  Working Paper 2.  August 2008.

     •     Financing Mechanisms for Malaria  All-Party Parliamentary Group on Malaria and Neglected Tropical Diseases. March 2007

Financial Mechanisms

Pooled Funds

     •     Pooled Funds to Fight Neglected Diseases: Assessing New Models to Finance Global Health R&D. Center for Global Health R&D Policy Assessment. May 2011

     •     The PDP+ Fund:  Accelerating creation of new products for diseases of poverty. PDP+Fund.Final.pdf May 2010.  IAVI, Novartis, The George Institute

     •     International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA) proposal for an “Initiative for sustainable funding for R&D for neglected diseases”. http://www.ifpma.org/pdf/2007_11_08_Soren_Peter_Andreasen.pdf

Tax Credits

     •     R&D Tax Credits: A Tool to Advance Global Health Technologies? Rao A. Center for Global Helath R&D Policy Assessment.  Final Report. September 2011.

Pay for Performance

     •     Incentives for Global Health: Toward Pay-for-Performance: Reimbursement of Innovative New Drugs. Gilbert’s LLP. August 2012.

     •     Performance-based financing at the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: an analysis of grant ratings and funding, 2003–12. Fan YY et al. The Lancet Global Health, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages e161 - e168, September 2013

     •     The Health Impact Fund: incentives for improving access to medicines. A Banerjee et al.  The Lancet. 375(9709) January 9 2010.

     •     The Health Impact Fund: Making New Medicines Accessible to All. A Hollis & T Pogge.  Incentives for Global Health.  August 2008.


     •     Prizes for Global Health Technologies.  Center for Global Health R&D Policy Assessment. March 2011.

     •     Knowledge Ecology International (KEI propose that researchers and drug developers should be rewarded by a ‘prize’ related to the public health utility of their invention as opposed to being rewarded through sales exclusivity protected by the patent system.  The greater the usefulness of a product in tackling a particular health challenge, the larger the reward would be. www.keionline.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=4&Itemid=1

     •     Médécins sans Frontières (MSF) proposed a prize fund to stimulate development of a low-cost point-of-care rapid diagnostic test for TB. Discussion of this idea, and other financing approaches took place at an MSF meeting in April 2008. www.accessmed-msf.org/fileadmin/user_upload/diseases/tuberculosis/2008%2004%2011%20Tuberculosis%20R%26D%20and%20alternative%20financing%20mechanisms%20-%20MSF%20meeting.pdf

Advanced Market Commitment

     •     The Advance Market Commitment for Pneumococcal Vaccines: Process and design evaluation.  Evaluation commissioned by GAVI.  Dalberg Global Development Advisors. 2013.

     •     Advance Market Commitments to Stimulate Industry Investment in Global Health Product Development A Report on the Biotech Industry’s Perspective. BVGH.  February 2006

     •     Developing new technologies to address neglected diseases:  the role of Product Development Partnerships and Advanced Market Commitments.  C Grace.  DFID Health Resource Centre.  June 2006

     •     An Advance Market Commitment for AIDS Vaccines: Accelerating the Response From Industry.  May 2006.  IAVI Policy Research Working Paper 7

     •     Making Markets for Vaccines: Ideas to Action.  M. Kremer et al.  Center for Global Development.  2005

Affordable Medicines Facility/ Global Drug Facility

     •     Preliminary Report of the Independent Evaluation of AMFm Phase 1.  Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.  July 2012

     •     Effect of the Affordable Medicines Facility—malaria (AMFm) on the availability, price, and market share of quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapies in seven countries: a before-and-after analysis of outlet survey data. Tougher S et al. The Lancet, Volume 380, Issue 9857, Pages 1916 - 1926, 1 December 2012

     •     The Global Drug Facility and its role in the market for tuberculosis drugs. Arinaminpathy N et al. The Lancet, Volume 382, Issue 9901, Pages 1373 - 1379, 19 October 2013

     •     Malaria: An Affordable Medicines Facility for Malaria: the Right Drug at the Right Time. All-Party Parliamentary Group on Malaria and Neglected Tropical Diseases.  November 2007.

     •     Affordable Medicines Facility - Malaria (AMFm) website

Other - mobilizing funding from non-traditional sources

     •     Government Backed Bonds:The International Finance Facility for Immunization (IFFIm) works by investing the majority of resources up front- “frontloading” through issuing bonds against secure donor commitments, to ensure increased and more reliable and predictable funding flows.  The first bonds were released in November 2006, raising US$ 1 billion. www.iff-immunisation.org/index.html

     •     Currency Transaction Development Levy (CTDL).  See:

•     http://mpra.ub.uni-uenchen.de/4054/1/MPRA_paper_4054.pdf

•     http://www.pobrezacero.org/img_bol/Sony Kapoor Currency Tax Proposal for International Policy D.pdf

     •     Innovative Vaccine Investment ISA: Vaccine Investment ISA press release

     •     Tax Justice Network proposals on capital flight and tax avoidance/evasion: http://www.innovativefinance-oslo.no/pop.cfm?FuseAction=Doc&pAction=View&pDocumentId=11607

Patent related Mechanisms/ Legislative measures

Patent Pools

     •     Patent Pools: Assessing Their Value-Added for Global Health Innovation and Access, Center for Global Health R&D.  April 2012.

     •     In July 2008 UNITAID's Executive Board approved the principle of establishing a patent pool initially focused on paediatric antiretrovirals (ARVs) and new anti-HIV combinations: www.unitaid.eu/en/NEWS/UNITAID-moves-towards-a-patent-pool-for-medicines.html

Open Source

     •     The Open Access Malaria Box: A Drug Discovery Catalyst for Neglected Diseases. Spangenberg T et al. PLoS ONE 8(6): e62906. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062906

     •     Open source drug discovery - A limited tutorial. Robertson MN et al. Parasitology / FirstView Article pp 1-10.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182013001121, Published online: 28 August 2013

     •     Open Source for Neglected Diseases: Magic Bullet or Mirage? Center for Global Health R&D Policy Assessment. April 2011

     •     Open access consortium. Strauss S. Nature Biotechnology 29, 298 (2011) doi:10.1038/nbt0411-298b

Priority Review Vouchers

     •     Introduction of European priority review vouchers to encourage development of new medicines for neglected diseases.  Ridley DB & Sanches AC. The Lancet, Volume 376, Issue 9744, Pages 922 - 927, 11 September 2010

     •     Priority Review Vouchers:  How Much are they worth to Global Health.  Report from Partnering for Global Health Forum 2008

     •     New Market Incentive to Encourage Innovation for Global Health.  BVGH.

     •     other useful websites: http://prvinfo.org/

     •     Original Brownback/Brown FDA Amendment: Priority Review to encourage treatments for tropical diseases.

     •     Coartem earns first Priority Review Voucher issued under the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007.   For additional information, see:

FDA press release

Draft Guidance for Industry: Tropical Disease Priority Review Vouchers


FDA Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee


Orphan drug legislation

     •     Orphan drug legislation: lessons for neglected tropical diseases.  S Villa et al. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management. Published Online 24 April 2008.